Cold and cough medicines can help relieve symptoms of a common cold. The symptoms of a cold can include a sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, and coughing.

You don’t usually need to treat a cold or the cough that it causes. You can’t cure a cold, and antibiotics won’t help you get better. But sometimes the symptoms can keep you awake or cause a lot of discomforts. In that case, cold and cough medicines can sometimes be helpful.

What are the different types of cold and cough medicines?

There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things:

  • Nasal decongestants – unclog a stuffy nose
  • Cough suppressants – quiet a cough
  • Expectorants – loosen mucus in your lungs so you can cough it up
  • Antihistamines – stop runny noses and sneezing
  • Pain relievers – ease fever, headaches, and minor aches and pains

What do I need to know about taking cold and cough medicines?

Before taking these medicines, read the labels and follow the instructions carefully. Many cold and cough medicines contain the same active ingredients. For example, some of them include pain relievers. If you are taking these medicines and are also taking a separate pain reliever, you could be getting a dangerous amount of the pain reliever.

Do not give cold or cough medicines to children under two, and don’t give aspirin to children.

What else can I do to feel better about a cold or cough?

If you decide that you don’t want to take cold and cough medicines, there are other ways to feel better:

  • Drink lots of fluids
  • Get plenty of rest
  • Use a cool mist humidifier
  • Use saline nose drops or sprays
  • Use nasal suctioning with a bulb syringe, which can be very helpful in children under a year old


PURPOSE: This Master Formula is written to describe the formulae, manufacturing procedure, specifications, packing details of dosage form.

SCOPE:This MFR is performed and is applied during the manufacturing of dosage form.

RESPONSIBILITY / ACCOUNTABILITY: It is the responsibility of Manufacturing Chemist to follow and adhere to this SOP. The Production, QC/QA Manager are accountable for the strict adherence to the master formula.


1.      Master Copy:  Manager Quality Assurance

2.      Copy No.   1: Production Pharmacist

3.      Copy No.  2: Manager Quality Control

4.      Copy No.  3:  Tablet Section



Each uncoated Tablet contains:

Acetaminophen                                               I.P.            500 mg

Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride                       I.P.             30 mg

Cetirizine Dihydrochloride                                  B.P.           10 mg


Each uncoated Tablet contains:

Acetaminophen                                               I.P.            500 mg

Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride                       I.P.             30 mg

Cetirizine Dihydrochloride                                  B.P.           10 mg






1 Steam Jacketed Starch Paste Preparation Tank
2 Sifter Machine – I
3 Roto Cube Blender –I
4 Rapid Mixer Granulator
5 Multi Mill
6 Fluidized Bed Drier
7 Oscillating Granulator
8 Sifter Machine – II
9 Roto Cube Blender – II
10 Tablet Compression Machine 27 Stations
11 Dedusting Machine
12 Tablet Inspection Machine
13. Triple Track Blister Machine


S.NO. INGREDIENTS STD Theoretical Quantity Req. Overages % Total Quantity Used
1. Aerosil B.P. 1.500 1.500 kg.
2. Cetrizine Di Hydrochloride B.P. 10.000 10.000 kg
3. DI calcium Phosphate I.P. 20.000 20.000 kg
4. Lactose I.P 20.000 20.000 kg
5. Micro Crystalline Cellulose Phosphate I.P. 21.000 21.000 kg
6. Magnesium Stearate I.P. 4.000 4.000 kg
7. Paracetamol I.P. 500.000 500.000 kg
8. Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride I.P. 30.000 30.000 kg
9. Sodium Benzoate I.P. 2.000 2.000 kg
10. Starch I.P. 110.00 110.00 kg
11. Starch I.P. 20.000 20.000 kg
12. Starch I.P. 20.000 20.000 kg
13. Talcum I.P. 6.000 6.000 kg
14. Sodium Starch Glyculate I.P. 1.66 1.66 kg




1. 220 MM RED (PVC) 130.000 130.000 KGS
3. ALUMINIUM FOIL 3 – TRACK 30.000 30.000 KGS
4 CELLO TAPE 6.000 6.000 NOS
5 UNIT CARTON  – 20 X 10 5000.00 2.000 5002.00 NOS
6 CORRUGATED BOX 83.000 83.000 NOS


1.         Moisture content of powder should be less than 2.0 %.

2.         Average weight of each Tablet is 750 milligrams.

3.         Weight Variation Limit for average weight of 20 tablets is + 5.0 %.

4.         Friability limit for 20 Tablets is not more than 1.0 %.

5.         Hardness of the Tablets varies between 4 – 5 kg/cm2.               

6.         Disintegration time for each Tablet is not more than 15 minutes.

7.         Mix the batch, compress and de-dust the tablets and also perform the primary packing of Tablets at temperature not more than 250 C.


Theoretical Yield is 10.0 Lac Tablets.

Expected Practical Yield is 10.0 Lac + 2% Tablets.·       

Packing Details:

1.         Use PVC Red 220 mm and Aluminium foil for blister packing.

2.         Blister Pack the inspected and De-dusted tablets by using Triple Track Blister Packing Machine as per its SOP.

3.         Put 20 strips each containing 10 tablets in each carton.

4.         Seal the each carton from both ends with cello tape.

5.         Pack the 60 cartons in specified corrugated box N-34 to give a pack size of 60 x 20 x 10 tablets.

6.         Seal the each corrugated box with adhesive tape and label it properly by affixing the specified label.


1. Preparation of Starch Paste:

Prepare the starch paste in two lots.

Prepare the starch paste in the manner given below using Steam Jacketed Starch Paste Preparation Tank by operating it as per its SOP.

Dissolve 2.0 kgs of Sodium Benzoate in 4.0 Ltrs of DM water and stir continuously.

Add 10.0 kgs of Starch in 10 Ltrs D.M. water and stir continuously to make smooth slurry.

To 85 Ltrs of boiling water add the solution of sodium benzoate and starch slurry with constant stirring to get a uniform   paste

Repeat the same process for the next lot.

2.  Sifting:

Fit Stainless Steel Sieve # 40 on the Sifter-I as per its SOP. Sift all the ingredients through it and collect separately in Stainless Steel Container.

3.  Blending:

Blend the following ingredients in a Roto Cube Blender by operating it as per its SOP  for 30 minutes and collect in Stainless Steel Containers.

110.0 kgs of Starch

20.0 kgs of Dicalcium Phosphate

20.0 kgs of Lactose

10.0 kgs of Cetirizine Di Hydrochloride

21.0 kgs of M.C.C.P.

500 kgs of Paracetamol

30.0 kgs of Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride

Repeat the same process for the next lot

4.  Wet Granulation:

Mix the Above blended ingredients with the Starch paste using Rapid Mixer Granulator by operating it as per its SOP. Add starch paste in such a manner by following the procedure given below so as to achieve proper wetting.

Divide the blended powder in twenty equal parts.

Divide the total prepared starch paste in twenty equal parts.

Mix the one part of blended powder and starch paste together in Rapid Mixer Granulator.

Similarly mix the rest of the parts in same manner.

5.  Wet Screening:

Pass the wet dough through a Multi Mill by operating it as per its SOP to convert the moist mass into coarse, granular aggregates.

6.  Drying:

Dry the granules in Fluidized Bed Drier by operating it as per its SOP  at temperature   60˚ – 70˚C for 30 minutes. Cool the granules to room temperature.

7. Sifting:

Fit Stainless Steel Sieve # 14 on the Sifter-II as per its SOP. Sift all the granules through it and collect in Stainless Steel Container. Break the oversized granules left over the mesh in Oscillating Granulator by operating it as per its SOP  and resift them.

8.      Check the total weight of dried granules. Determine the loss on drying and percentage yield of dried granules. Divide the dried granules in two equal lots.

  9.  Lubrication:

Lubricate one lot of the sifted granules along the following ingredients in Roto Cube Blender by operating it as per its SOP  for 15 minutes and collect in Stainless Steel Containers. 

0.75 kgs of Aerosil

2.0 kgs of Magnesium Stearate

10.0 kgs of Starch

3.0 kgs of Talcum

Repeat the same process for the next lot with the same quantity mentioned above.

10. Send the granules for bulk testing to Quality Control Department for assay of Active Ingredients.

11. Compression:

Shift all the granules for compression to Tablet Compression Machine 27 Stations by operating it as per its SOP  and collect the compressed tablets in Stainless Steel Container.

12. Tablet Inspection:

Transfer all the tablets to Tablet inspection machine and sort out the defected tablet by operating it as per its SOP  and collect the selected tablets in Stainless Steel Container.

13. Blister Packing:

Shift the inspected tablets to blister section and blister pack them using Triple Track Blister Packing Machine by operating it as per its SOP .


The following in-process controls should be maintained during the processing:

1.Check Raw materials used for manufacturing purpose are all approved materials and have ‘Released’ labels fixed on it.

2.  All weighed Raw materials should be counter-checked by Assistant Manufacturing Chemist. If any discrepancy is noticed, it should be immediately brought to the notice of Production and QC/QA Manager.

3.Physical characteristics of Raw material like colour, odour, and consistency are checked before compounding.

4.Humidity and temperature should be maintained during the compression of thermolabile products.

5.Sample of dried granules should be sent to Quality Control Department for the determination of Moisture content.

6.The total weight of blended powder should be checked in the presence of Assistant Manufacturing Chemist and record the same in Batch Manufacturing Record.

7. Bulk sample should be sent for analysis to Quality Control Department before starting compression of tablets.

8. Weight Variation: I) Intermittently weight variation of compressed tablets should be checked at 30 minutes interval by the Assistant Manufacturing Chemist and record for the same should be kept in Batch Manufacturing Record.

(II) Out-of-limit tablets should be checked by Weight Variation Method as given below:

(i) Take the average weight of 20 tablets on the calibrated balance and calculate the upper and lower limit   as   per the table given below in accordance with IP/BP:

                 (in mg)
  MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENCE                                                                      ALLOWED
80mg or less                                10
More than 80mg and less than 250mg                                 7.5
250mg or more                                  5

ii) Take the weight of individual tablets and check if all the tablets are lying with in the limits.

iii) Select the tablets only if no more than two tablets are out of percentage limit and if no tablet differs by more than two times the percentage limit, otherwise reject the tablets.

iv) Adjust the desired weight of the tablets in the Compression Machine by moving weight adjustment cam   clockwise or anticlockwise accordingly as per the Standard Operating Procedure of Compression Machine.

v) Re-check the weight of tablets for further adjustment, if any.

9.Thickness of Tablets:

Thickness of the tablets should be determined by means of the vernier caliper. The thickness of the tablet should be checked whenever weight adjustments are made.

10. Hardness of the tablets:

The equipment used is the ‘Monsanto’ type hardness tester. Hardness of the compressed tablets should be checked at regular interval to determine the need for pressure adjustments on the tableting machine.

Hardness of tablets varies between: 4-5 Kg/cm2.

11. Friability:

‘Roche Friabilator’ is used for measuring the Friability. The instrument is designed to evaluate the ability of the tablet to withstand abrasion in packaging, handling and shipping.

Adjust the instrument to 25 RPM before adding the tablets.

Weigh 20 Tablets on calibrated balance. Transfer the tablets in the plastic chamber. Close the drum tightly.

Switch on the apparatus. Operate the Friabilator for 100 revolutions.

De-dust and reweigh the tablets. Loss in weight indicates the ability of tablets to withstand the wear.

Take 10 tablets to check the friability, when the average weight of tablet is 1g or more than 1g.

  Friability Limit  = Less than 1.0%

12. Disintegration Test:

i) Disintegration is the time required for the group of tablets to disintegrate into the particles. Disintegration Test should be carried out at regular interval of 1 hour by using Disintegration Test Apparatus.

ii) The tube assembly unit is removed from the glass beaker and from each tube the plastic discs are removed.

iii) Place the tablets in each of 6 tubes along with a plastic disc over the tablets.

iv) The glass beaker is filled with water. The water in the beaker is retained at the temperature of 37+1˚C through out the test by suitably setting the thermostat.

v)Introduce a tube assembly unit into glass beaker in such a way that wire mesh at the base of each tube is at least 2.5cm below the surface of liquid when the basket is at highest position.

vi) Switch on the apparatus to move the basket assembly containing the tablets up and down through a distance of 5 to 6 cm at a frequency of 28 to 32 cycles per minute. Start the stopwatch.

vii) When the tablets have disintegrated i.e. when no particles remain on the wire mesh at the bottom of tube, stop the stopwatch. Note the time taken for disintegration of the tablets and record the same in Batch Manufacturing Record.

viii) If one or two tablets fail to disintegrate, the test is to be repeated using 12 tablets

Disintegration Time of uncoated tablets= Not more than 15 minutes

Disintegration Time of coated tablets= Not more than 30 minutes

13. Tablets taken for testing and In-process control should not be added to the bulk batch to avoid mix-ups and cross-contamination.

14.Inspection, sorting of rejected tablets should be done as per SOP.

15.The strips and cartons should be checked thoroughly for proper batch coding.

16. Manufacturing Chemist and Production Pharmacist should randomly check that the correct no. of strips are being packed in each cartons and also the number of cartons in each shipper is exactly the same as that shown in proof.

17. Intimation should be sent to Quality Control Department for finished product sampling and testing.

18. After the completion of labelling and packaging, the coded cartons should be accounted for and rejected printed material should be destroyed in the presence of QC/QA Manager. Fill the destruction sheet and attach the same in the Batch Manufacturing Record.

19.It will be ensure that filling or packaging equipment has been properly cleaned after the completion of batch.

20.Filling or packaging of next product should not commence until the IPQA has given the ‘Line Clearance’.


References: MedlinePlus