Ceftriaxone injection

Ceftriaxone injection

CEFTRIAXONE  is a cephalosporin antibiotic and Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic inflammatory disease (infection of the female reproductive organs that may cause infertility), meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), and infections of the lungs, ears, skin, urinary tract, blood, bones, joints, and abdomen. Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types of surgery to prevent infections that may develop after the operation. Ceftriaxone injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.

Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

Ceftriaxone may be used alone or with other medications.

Ceftriaxone belongs to a class of drugs called Cephalosporins, 3rd Generation.

How Ceftriaxone works?

Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic. It kills the bacteria by preventing them from forming the bacterial protective covering (cell wall) which is needed for them to survive.

How should Ceftriaxone injection be used?

Ceftriaxone injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid, or as a premixed product, to be injected intravenously (into a vein) over a period of 30 or 60 minutes.

Ceftriaxone injection can also be given intramuscularly (into a muscle).

It is sometimes given as a single dose and sometimes given once or twice a day for 4-14 days, depending on the type of infection being treated.

You may receive ceftriaxone injection in a hospital or doctor’s office, or you may administer the medication at home.

If you will be receiving ceftriaxone injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. Be sure that you understand these directions, and ask your healthcare provider if you have any questions.

You should begin to feel better during the first few days of your treatment with ceftriaxone injection. If your symptoms do not improve or get worse, call your doctor.

If you will be using more than one dose of ceftriaxone injection, use the medication until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better.

If you stop using ceftriaxone injections too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

What are the Dosage forms of ceftriaxone injection?

Dosage forms:

Dosage Forms & Strengths

injectable solution

  • 1g/50mL
  • 2g/50mL

powder for injection

  • 250mg
  • 500mg
  • 1g
  • 2g
  • 10g
  • 100g

What s the Drug class of Ceftriaxone Injection?

Drug class: Third-generation cephalosporins

What ceftriaxone is and what it is used for?

Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic given to adults and children (including newborn babies). It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. It belongs to a group of medicines called cephalosporins.

Ceftriaxone is used to treat infections of

  • The brain (meningitis)
  • The lungs
  • The middle ear
  • The abdomen and abdominal wall (peritonitis)
  • The urinary tract and kidneys
  • Bones and joints
  • The skin or soft tissues
  • The blood
  • The heart.

It can be given:

  • To treat specific sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and syphilis)
  • To treat patients with low white blood cell counts (neutropenia) who have fever due to bacterial infection
  • To treat infections of the chest in adults with chronic bronchitis
  • To treat Lyme disease (caused by tick bites) in adults and children including newborn babies from 15 days of age
  • To prevent infections during surgery.

. What you need to know before you are given ceftriaxone

You must not be given ceftriaxone:

  • If you are allergic to ceftriaxone or any of the other ingredients of this medicine
  • If you have had a sudden or severe allergic reaction to penicillin or similar antibiotics (such as cephalosporins, carbapenems, or monobactams). The signs include sudden swelling of the throat or face which might make it difficult to breath or swallow, sudden swelling of the hands, feet, and ankles, and a severe rash that develops quickly
  • If you are allergic to lidocaine and you are to be given ceftriaxone as an injection into a muscle

Ceftriaxone must not be given to babies if

  • The baby is premature
  • The baby is a newborn (up to 28 days of age) and has certain blood problems or jaundice (yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes) or is to be given a product that contains calcium in their vein.

Warnings and precautions

Talk to your doctor or pharmacist or nurse before you are given ceftriaxone if:

• You have recently received or are about to receive products that contain calcium

• You have recently had diarrhoea after having an antibiotic medicine. You have ever had problems with your gut, in particular, colitis (inflammation of the bowel)

  • You have liver or kidney problems
  • You have gall stones or kidney stones
  • You have other illnesses, such as haemolytic anaemia (a reduction in your red blood cells that may make your skin pale yellow and cause weakness or breathlessness)
  • You are on a low sodium diet
  • You experience or have previously experienced a combination of any of the following symptoms: rash, red skin, blistering of the lips, eyes, and mouth, skin peeling, high fever, flu-like symptoms, increased levels of liver enzymes seen in blood tests, and an increase in a type of white blood cell (eosinophilia) and enlarged lymph nodes

.

How to take ceftriaxone

Ceftriaxone is usually given by a doctor or nurse. It can be given as

• A drip (intravenous infusion) or an injection directly into a vein or

• Into a muscle.

Ceftriaxone is made up by the doctor, pharmacist, or nurse and will not be mixed with or given to you at the same time as calcium-containing injections.

The recommended dose Your doctor will decide the correct dose of ceftriaxone for you. The dose will depend on the severity and type of infection; whether you are on any other antibiotics; your weight and age; how well your kidneys and liver are working.

The number of days or weeks that you are given ceftriaxone depends on what sort of infection you have. Adults, older people, and children aged 12 years and over with a body weight greater than or equal to 50 kilograms (kg):

• 1 to 2g once a day depending on the severity and type of infection.

If you have a severe infection, your doctor will give you a higher dose (up to 4g once a day).

If your daily dose is higher than 2g, you may receive it as a single dose once a day or as two separate doses.

Newborn babies, infants, and children aged 15 days to 12 years with a body weight of less than 50kg:

• 50-80mg ceftriaxone for each kg of the child’s body weight once a day depending on the severity and type of infection.

If you have a severe infection, your doctor will give you a higher dose up to 100mg for each kg of body weight to a maximum of 4g once a day.

If your daily dose is higher than 2g, you may receive it as a single dose once a day or as two separate doses.

• Children with a body weight of 50kg or more should be given the usual adult dose

. Newborn babies (0-14 days)

• 20 – 50mg ceftriaxone for each kg of the child’s body weight once a day depending on the severity and type of infection.

• The maximum daily dose is not to be more than 50mg for each kg of the baby’s weight.

What are Possible side effects of Ceftriaxone?

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. The following side effects may happen with this medicine:

Severe allergic reactions (not known, the frequency cannot be estimated from the available data) If you have a severe allergic reaction, tell a doctor straight away. The signs may include:

• Sudden swelling of the face, throat, lips, or mouth. This can make it difficult to breathe or swallow

• Sudden swelling of the hands, feet, and ankles. Severe skin reactions (not known, the frequency cannot be estimated from the available data) If you get a severe skin reaction, tell a doctor straight away. The signs may include:

• A severe rash that develops quickly, with blisters or peeling of the skin and possibly blisters in the mouth. (Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis which are also known as SJS and TEN)

• A combination of any of the following symptoms: widespread rash, high body temperature, liver enzyme elevations, blood abnormalities (eosinophilia), enlarged lymph nodes, and other body organs involvement (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms which is also known as DRESS or drug hypersensitivity syndrome)

• Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction which causes fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, and skin rash that is usually self-limiting. This occurs shortly after starting ceftriaxone treatment for infections with spirochete such as Lyme disease. Treatment with ceftriaxone, particularly in elderly patients with serious kidney or nervous system problems may rarely cause decreased consciousness, abnormal movements, agitation, and convulsions. Other possible side effects: Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)

• Abnormalities with your white blood cells (such as a decrease of leucocytes and an increase of eosinophils) and platelets (decrease of thrombocytes)

• Loose stools or diarrhea

• Changes in the results of blood tests for liver functions

• Rash. Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)

• Fungal infections (for example, thrush)

• A decrease in the number of white blood cells (granulocytopenia)

• Reduction in number of red blood cells (anaemia)

• Problems with the way your blood clots.

The signs may include bruising easily and pain and swelling of your joints

• Headache

• Dizziness

• Feeling sick or being sick

• Pruritis (itching)

• Pain or a burning feeling along the vein where ceftriaxone has been given.

Pain where the injection was given

• A high temperature (fever)

• Abnormal kidney function test (blood creatinine increased). Rare (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people)

• Inflammation of the large bowel (colon).

The signs include diarrhoea, usually with blood and mucus, stomach pain and fever

• Difficulty in breathing (bronchospasm)

• A lumpy rash (hives) that may cover a lot of your body, feeling itchy and swelling

• Blood or sugar in your urine

• Oedema (fluid build-up)

• Shivering. Not known (Frequency cannot be estimated from the available data)

• A secondary infection that may not respond to the antibiotic previously prescribed

• Form of anaemia where red blood cells are destroyed (haemolytic anaemia)

• Severe decrease in white blood cells (agranulocytosis)

• Convulsions

• Vertigo (spinning sensation)

• Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

The signs include severe pain in the stomach which spreads to your back

• Inflammation of the mucus lining of the mouth (stomatitis)

• Inflammation of the tongue (glossitis).

The signs include swelling, redness, and soreness of the tongue

• Problems with your gallbladder and/or liver, which may cause pain, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of the skin, itching, unusually dark urine and clay-colored stools

• A neurological condition that may occur in neonates with severe jaundice (kernicterus)

• Kidney problems caused by deposits of calcium ceftriaxone.

There may be pain when passing water (urine) or low output of urine

• A false-positive result in a Coombs’ test (a test for some blood problems)

• A false positive result for galactosemia (an abnormal build-up of the sugar galactose)

• Ceftriaxone may interfere with some types of blood glucose tests – please check with your doctor.

Reporting of side effects If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

How to store ceftriaxone ?

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children

• Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the label. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month

• The vials and bottles should not be stored above 25o C

• Keep the vial or bottle in the outer carton in order to protect it from light

• From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately.

In-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2°C to 8°C unless reconstitution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

Once reconstituted, any unused portion of the solution should be discarded. Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste.

Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.

Shelf life and special precautions for storage ?

Unopened – Three years. Do not store above 25°C. Keep the vials or bottles in the outer carton For reconstituted solution, chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at 25°C and for four days at 2-8°C.

From a microbiological point of view, once opened, the product should be used immediately.

If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to the use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2-8°C, unless reconstitution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

Throw away any unused vials after the expiration date.

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions: any chronic illness bowel disease, like colitis both kidney and liver disease high bilirubin level in newborn patients an unusual or allergic reaction to ceftriaxone, other cephalosporin or penicillin antibiotics, foods, dyes, or preservatives pregnant or trying to get pregnant breast-feeding

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

Do not take this medicine with any of the following medications: intravenous calcium This medicine may also interact with the following medications: birth control pills This list may not describe all possible interactions.

Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor or health care provider if your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse. This medicine may cause serious skin reactions. They can happen weeks to months after starting the medicine. Contact your health care provider right away if you notice fevers or flu-like symptoms with a rash. The rash may be red or purple and then turn into blisters or peeling of the skin. Or, you might notice a red rash with swelling of the face, lips, or lymph nodes in your neck or under your arms.

Do not treat diarrhea with over-the-counter products. Contact your doctor if you have diarrhea that lasts more than 2 days or if it is severe and watery.

If you are being treated for a sexually transmitted disease, avoid sexual contact until you have finished your treatment. Having sex can infect your sexual partner.

Calcium may bind to this medicine and cause lung or kidney problems. Avoid calcium products while taking this medicine and for 48 hours after taking the last dose of this medicine

.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives,

swelling of the face, lips, or tongue breathing problems fever,

chills irregular heartbeat pain when passing urine redness,

blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth seizures stomach pain,

cramps unusual bleeding,

bruising unusually weak or tired Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome): diarrhea dizzy, drowsy headache nausea, vomiting pain, swelling, irritation where injected stomach upset sweating

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions: any chronic illness bowel disease, like colitis both kidney and liver disease high bilirubin level in newborn patients an unusual or allergic reaction to ceftriaxone, other cephalosporin or penicillin antibiotics, foods, dyes, or preservatives pregnant or trying to get pregnant breast-feeding

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Your healthcare provider will tell you how to store your medication. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand how to store your medication properly. Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them.

However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program.

Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FOR CEFTRIAXONE?

Ceftriaxone

Question. Is Ceftriaxone safe?

Answer: Ceftriaxone is safe if used in the dose and duration advised by your doctor. Take it exactly as directed and do not skip any dose. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully and let your doctor know if any of the side effects bother you.

Question. How long does Ceftriaxone take to work?

Answer: Usually, Ceftriaxone starts working soon after you take it. However, it may take some days to kill all the harmful bacteria and relieve your symptoms completely.

Question. Who should not take Ceftriaxone?

Answer: Ceftriaxone should not be prescribed to people who are allergic to Ceftriaxone or any of its ingredients. Inform your doctor if you have or ever had any problems with your liver, kidneys, gall bladder, or any other blood-related disorders such as hemolytic anemia. If you are pregnant, breastfeeding or if you are planning a baby, do not take Ceftriaxone without consulting your doctor to avoid any harmful effects on the baby. Let your doctor know about all the other medicines you are taking because they may affect, or be affected by, this medicine.

Question. What if I do not get better after using Ceftriaxone?

Answer: Inform your doctor if you do not feel better even after finishing the full course of treatment. You must also inform your doctor if the symptoms get worse while using this medicine.

Question. For how long does Ceftriaxone stay in the body?

Answer: Usually, Ceftriaxone stays in the body for around 2 days after completely stopping the medicine.

Question. Is Ceftriaxone effective?

Answer: Ceftriaxone is effective if used in the dose and duration advised by your doctor. Do not stop taking it even if you see improvement in your condition. If you stop using Ceftriaxone too early, the symptoms may return or worsen.

Disclaimer

The information provided herein is supplied to the best of our abilities to make it accurate and reliable as it is published after a review by a team of professionals. This information is solely intended to provide a general overview of the product and must be used for informational purposes only. You should not use the information provided herein to diagnose, prevent, or cure a health problem. Nothing contained on this page is intended to create a doctor-patient relationship, or replace or be a substitute for a registered medical practitioner’s medical treatment/advice or consultation. The absence of any information or warning to any medicine shall not be considered and assumed as an implied assurance. We highly recommend that you consult your registered medical practitioner for all queries or doubts related to your medical condition. You hereby agree that you shall not make any health or medical-related decision based in whole or in part on anything contained in the Site.

References:

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/1361/pil

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/20162-ceftriaxone-injection

https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a685032.html

https://www.1mg.com/generics/ceftriaxone-209545

 

About ABHA

Abha is the Author  of pharmaceutical guidance, she is a pharmaceutical professional having more than 22 years of rich experience in pharmaceutical field. During her career, she works in the quality assurance department with multinational companies i.e Zydus Cadila Ltd, Unichem Laboratories Ltd, Indoco remedies Ltd. During his experience, she faces many regulatorily audits i.e. USFDA, MHRA, ANVISA, MCC, TGA, EU –GMP, WHO –Geneva, ISO 9001-2008 and many ROW Regularities Audit i.e.Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. She is currently leading a regulatory pharmaceutical company as a Head Quality. You can join him by Email, Facebook, Google+, Twitter, and YouTube

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